As Our Predecessor Pius XII so rightly affirmed: The dignity of the human person "normally demands the right to the use of the goods of the earth, to which corresponds the fundamental obligation of granting an opportunity to possess property to all if possible." Great is their dignity, a dignity which she has always guarded most zealously and held in the highest esteem. 162. For many years now it has been making an effective and valued contribution to the establishment in the world of an economics and social order marked by justice and humanity, an order which recognizes and safeguards the lawful rights of the workingman. Increase in production and productive efficiency is, of course, sound policy, and indeed a vital necessity. In conclusion, Venerable Brethren, We would remind you of that sublime truth of Catholic doctrine: our incorporation as living members in Christ's Mystical Body, the Church, "For as the body is one and hath many members; and all the members of the body, whereas they are many, yet are one body; so also is Christ." They have to wait longer than most people for their returns, and these are exposed to greater hazards. We shall have more to say on this point later on. (46), The Real Source of Justice, Truth and Love. Mater et magistra de recentioribus rerum socialium processibus ad christiana praecepta componendis, [Ad venerabiles fratres Patriarchas, Primates, Archiepiscopos, Episcopos aliosque locorum Ordinarios, pacem et communionem cum Apostolica Sede habentes, itemque ad universum clerum et christifideles catholici orbis] 15 maii 1961: AAS 53(1961), pp. 25. The means often used, the methods followed, the atmosphere created, all conspire to make it difficult for a person to think independently of outside influences, to act on his own initiative, exercise his responsibility and express and fulfil his own personality. They will thus win those people who are opposed to it through ignorance of it. We therefore paternally invite Our beloved sons—craftsmen and members of cooperatives throughout the world—to realize the greatness of this task which is theirs in the State. 164. And will not men who see clearly and compare the superior dignity of the persecuted with that refined barbarity of their oppressors, soon return to their senses, if indeed they have not already done so? 247. Forty years after the appearance of this magnificent summary of Christian social principles, Our Predecessor, Pius XI, published his own encyclical, Quadragesimo Anno. (21). On the contrary, everything must be done to minimize the ill effects of overproduction, and to spread the burden equitably over the entire population. As Our Predecessor Pius XII observed with evident justification: "Likewise the national economy, as it is the product of the men who work together in the community of the State, has no other end than to secure without interruption the material conditions in which the individual life of the citizens may fully develop. 78. "He that abideth in men, and I in him, the same beareth much fruit." 2. There is, alas, a spirit of hedonism abroad today which beguiles men into thinking that life is nothing more than the quest for pleasure and the satisfaction of human passions. History itself bears this out, for the Church is present everywhere on earth, doing all that she can to embrace all peoples. Personal gain was considered the only valid motive for economic activity. The response of good Catholics to this appeal and the enterprise they showed in reducing these principles into practice is hardly surprising. 141. Small wonder, then, that the Catholic Church, in imitation of Christ and in fulfilment of His commandment, relies not merely upon her teaching to hold aloft the torch of charity, but also upon her own widespread example. So much is clear. 221. Their rate of pay is quite inadequate to meet the basic needs of life. (51). 233. It is rightly regarded as a compendium of Catholic social and economic teaching. 203. There were those who presumed to accuse the Church of taking no interest in social matters other than to preach resignation to the poor and generosity to the rich, but Leo XIII had no hesitation in proclaiming and defending the legitimate rights of the workers. (62). 252. People must also be shown ways in which they can properly fulfill these obligations. (40) Allocutio, 3 May, 1960; cf. It is because these ideologies do not take account of the whole man, nor even of his most important part. 182. 178. Insurance programs that are established for the general public should not differ markedly whatever be the economic sector in which the individuals work or the source of their income. They must try to reconcile their rights and interests with those of other classes of workers, and even subordinate the one to the other if the common good demands it. . This adaptation must be effected principally by the workers themselves and the members of the co-operatives. We should notice at this point that the right of private ownership is clearly sanctioned by the Gospel. 257. 194. 127. 28. Justice and humanity demand that those countries which produce consumer goods, especially farm products, in excess of their own needs should come to the assistance of those other countries where large sections of the population are suffering from want and hunger. It must surely worsen, even to the point of extreme hardship. First he taught what the supreme criterion in economic matters ought not to be. 155. It must not be the special interests of individuals or groups, nor unregulated competition, economic despotism, national prestige or imperialism, nor any other aim of this sort. (37) And the Lord will look upon the charity given to the poor as given to Himself. 51. This attitude must inevitably impair the bodily and spiritual health of the workers, whose welfare We have so much at heart. Separated from God a man is but a monster, in himself and toward others; for the right ordering of human society presupposes the right ordering of man's conscience with God, who is Himself the source of all justice, truth and love. For some considerable time now, Venerable Brethren, Our solicitude for the Universal Church has been directed into the writing of this letter; and We wish to conclude it by voicing the following desires: May man's divine Redeemer "who of God is made unto us wisdom and justice and sanctification and redemption," (65) reign and triumph gloriously throughout all ages, in all and over all. It also suggests new and vital criteria by which men can judge the magnitude of the social question as it presents itself today, and decide on the course of action they must take. Hence the craftsman's business and that of the family farm, as well as the co-operative enterprise which aims at the completion and perfection of both these concerns—all these are to be safeguarded and encouraged in harmony with the common good and technical progress. It is this: Economic progress must be accompanied by a corresponding social progress, so that all classes of citizens can participate in the increased productivity. But it does not follow that one is thereby exonerated from extending emergency aid to those who need it. It can never be right for the State to shirk its obligation of working actively for the betterment of the condition of the workingman. 126. They must beware of. Scientific and technical progress, greater productive efficiency and a higher standard of living are among the many present-day factors which would seem to have contributed to this trend. John XXIII continues by restating the teachings of earlier encyclical and emphasizing their lessons including the recognition of work as a human activity, the right to private property and the right of workers to enter into association. There are some indeed who go so far as to deny the existence of a moral order which is transcendent, absolute, universal and equally binding upon all. There is also a further temptation which the economically developed nations must resist: that of giving technical and financial aid with a view to gaining control over the political situation in the poorer countries, and furthering their ownplans for world domination. Furthermore, the progressive perfection of modern methods of thought-diffusion—the press, cinema, radio, television—makes it possible for everyone to participate in human events the world over. 241. She is mother enough to befriend such projects with her prayers." 123. 239. Consequently, farmers find greater difficulty in obtaining the capital necessary to increase returns. They must also educate them to a deep sense of responsibility in life, especially in such matters as concern the foundation of a family and the procreation and education of children. The transmission of human life is the result of a personal and conscious act, and, as such, is subject to the all-holy, inviolable and immutable laws of God, which no man may ignore or disobey. 220. The root cause of so much mistrust is the presence of ideological differences between nations, and more especially between their rulers. In the first place, considerable thought must be given, especially by public authorities, to the suitable development of essential facilities in country areas—such as roads; transportation; means of communication; drinking water; houseing; health services; elementary, technical and professional education; religious and recreational facilities; and the supply of modern installations and furnishings for the farm residence. In their social and economic teaching they have frequent recourse to the Leonine Encyclical, either to draw inspiration from it and clarify its application, or to find in it a stimulus to Catholic action. 238. It is also true that more and more people today, through belonging to insurance groups and systems of social security, find that they can face the future with confidence—the sort of confidence which formerly resulted from their possession of a certain amount of property. 180. 196. 139. 36. In this complex process, Mater et magistra is undoubtedly recognized today as a remarkably innovative text, a true preannouncement of the … This is the doubt that has arisen in many minds. Among citizens of the same political community there is often a marked degree of economic and social inequality. In the majority of cases a man's work is his sole means of livelihood. 124. Against this dark background, the brilliance of his teaching stands out in clear relief. 157. In it the Supreme Pontiff confirmed the right and duty of the Catholic Church to work for an equitable solution of the many pressing problems weighing upon human society and calling for a joint effort by all the people. In the first place, those nations which are still only at the beginning of their journey along the road to economic development would do well to consider carefully the experiences of the wealthier nations which have traversed this road before them. 35. It pains Us, therefore, to observe the complete indifference to the true hierarchy of values shown by so many people in the economically developed countries. On the contrary, all forms of economic enterprise must be governed by the principles of social justice and charity. Or what exchange shall a man give for his soul?" Mater et magistra is the encyclical written by Pope John XXIII on the topic of "Christianity and Social Progress". But lay up to yourselves treasures in heaven; where neither the rust nor moth doth consume, and where thieves do not break through nor steal." It is important, too, not to overlook the fact that the economic enterprises of the State and other agencies of public law must be entrusted to men of good reputation who have the necessary experience and ability and a keen sense of responsibility towards their country. 24. Yet at the same time they should show themselves animated by a spirit of understanding and unselfishness, ready to cooperate loyally in achieving objects which are good in themselves, or can be turned to good. In some parts of the world men are being subjected to inhuman privations so that the output of the national economy can be increased at a rate of acceleration beyond what would be possible if regard were had to social justice and equity. It in no way corresponds to the contribution they make to the good of the community, to the profits of the company for which they work, and to the general national economy. Justice shall walk before him: and shall set his steps in the way." They help to make him a better man, both in the natural and the supernatural order. (55). Needless to say, when the Hierarchy has made a decision on any point Catholics are bound to obey their directives. 192. 254. (50). 152. It is for individuals, therefore, to regulate their mutual relations where their work is concerned. Secondly, there are areas of varying economic prosperity within the same political communities. (19), 43. We are sick at heart, therefore, when We observe the contradiction which has beguiled so much modern thinking. But granting this, We must nevertheless state most emphatically that no statement of the problem and no solution to it is acceptable which does violence to man's essential dignity; those who propose such solutions base them on an utterly materialistic conception of man himself and his life. In agriculture the existence of two forms of insurance may be necessary: one concerned with agricultural produce, the other with the farm workers and their families. Finally, both workers and employers should regulate their mutual relations in accordance with the principle of human solidarity and Christian brotherhood. (7) St. Thomas, De regimine principum, I, 15. 170. Hence, as the Pope remarked so discerningly, "economic domination has taken the place of the open market. 104. Enormous riches accumulated in the hands of a few, while large numbers of workingmen found themselves in conditions of ever-increasing hardship. 189. Facilities could then be provided for the training of such people for their new kind of work, and they would not be left without economic aid and the mental and spiritual assistance they need to ensure their proper integration in their new social milieu. The world had changed considerably in the previous 30 years both politically and economically. To the attainment of this end nothing can be more effective than those principles and that supernatural aid which the Church supplies. The most perniciously typical aspect of the modern era consists in the absurd attempt to reconstruct a solid and fruitful temporal order divorced from God, who is, in fact, the only foundation on which it can endure. It is practice which makes perfect, even in such matters as the right use of liberty. ?ONE OF THESE ENCYCLICALS ISMATER ET MAGISTRAMater et Magistra is also known as "Mother and Teacher of all nations"It explains the common good as a … 175. Although not officially published until July of the same year, it was dated May 15, to commemorate the 70th anniversary of rerum novarum. On the one hand we are shown the fearful specter of want and misery which threatens to extinguish human life, and on the other hand we find scientific discoveries, technical inventions and economic resources being used to provide terrible instruments of ruin and death. Certainly one of the principal characteristics which seem to be typical of our age is an increase in social relationships, in those mutual ties, that is, which grow daily more numerous and which have led to the introduction of many and varied forms of associations in the lives and activities of citizens, and to their acceptance within our legal framework. Leo XIII spoke in a time of social and economic upheaval, of heightening tensions and actual revolt. For the Lord will give goodness: and our earth shall yield her fruit. 17. (43). 65. It is therefore very appropriate, or even necessary, that these public authorities and institutions bring the workers into their discussions, and those who represent the rights, demands and aspirations of the workingmen; and not confine their deliberations to those who merely represent the interests of management. 84. One advantage which would result from the adoption of this plan would be that it would be easier to keep track of the movement of the working force set free by the progressive modernization of agriculture. 131. We are witnessing the break-away from colonialism and the attainment of political independence by the peoples of Asia and Africa. Among these there is the desire to escape from confining surroundings which offer little prospect of a more comfortable way of life. 106. 248. The difficulties referred to principally concerned the Catholic's attitude to private property, the wage system, and moderate Socialism. There will always remain, therefore, a vast field for the exercise of human sympathy and the Christian charity of individuals. 229. He reiterated the principles of the Leonine encyclical and stressed those directives which were applicable to modern conditions. 56. Human Solidarity and Christian Brotherhood. But it is not enough to assert that the right to own private property and the means of production is inherent in human nature. Men in labor unions are showing a more responsible awareness of the major social and economic problems. Nevertheless, in his striving to master and transform the world around him he is in danger of forgetting and of destroying himself. 154. 135. In politics, too, it is of no small consequence that citizens are becoming daily more aware of their responsibility for furthering the common good in all spheres of life. 169. (48), 243. 207. It lays claim to the whole man, body and soul, intellect and will, inducing him to raise his mind above the changing conditions of this earthly existence and reach upwards for the eternal life of heaven, where one day he will find his unfailing happiness and peace. Obviously, any firm which is concerned for the human dignity of its workers must also maintain a necessary and efficient unity of direction. Istruzione sulla Santa Romana Chiesa Cattolica Consigli per raggiungere ...il Paradiso!

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