I do not aim to impose anything on others," explains Leyla Shahin, who was expelled from medical school for refusing to remove her headscarf. A parent wearing a headscarf on a school field trip has reignited debate. The Headscarf Issue. It is known as the Turkish hijab cap. This is how I express myself. "It should be banned, absolutely," she said about the veil. headscarf movement in Turkey has come up with two intertwining arguments: (1) headscarf is argued to be the most important symbol of the Islamist movement in Turkey and (2) it is argued to be not a passive submission to patriarchy but rather a modern form of agency.2 These early studies on the question of the headscarf in Turkey lifted a ban on the wearing of the Muslim headscarf, known as the hijab, on university campuses in 2010. Why someone’s misconceptions about the oppression of Islamic women would cause them to be cruel to those same women. , On 5 June 2008, Turkey's Constitutional Court annulled the parliament's proposed amendment intended to lift the headscarf ban, ruling that removing the ban was against the founding principles of the constitution. Atatürk never forbade the headscarf, but actively discouraged its use in public venues. What to Wear in Turkey: Women are required to cover their hair in order to enter mosques and other religious sites in Turkey. An interpretation of this law in 1997 extended the ban to the wearing of headscarves in all universities in Turkey. The professor did add, however, that headscarved women generally experience difficulty in obtaining positions as teachers, judges, lawyers, or doctors in the public service (ibid.). The answer is pretty much exactly what I wear in the states: I’m a little hesitant to write about what it was like to wear a hijab (the term refers to a modest dress code, but also specifically to the headscarves that are often worn by Muslim women), because I HAVE NO CLUE. MERO notes that women who wear headscarves may have more difficulty finding a job or obtaining a desirable wage (Apr. I mean, I know what it was like to ineptly drape a scarf over my head while going into a mosque in Turkey. That’s about it. Nevertheless, MERO reports that under Turkey's current administration, seen by secularists to have a hidden religious agenda (The New York Times 19 February 2008; Washington Post 26 February 2008), doctors in some public hospitals have entered the premises wearing headscarves (MERO Apr. With a constitutional principle of official secularism, the Turkish government has traditionally banned women who wear headscarves from working in the public sector. Cebeci added that the fact that women decide to wear their hair openly is nothing new in Turkey. The highly charged debate lies at the heart of Turkey’s divisions between religious conservatives, who form the bulk of Erdogan’s AKP supporters, and more secular members of society. The main political party, the Justice and Development Party and a key opposition party, the Nationalist Movement Party claimed that it was an issue of human rights and freedoms. Others say … The London-based Sunday Times reports that while the ban is officially in place only in the public sphere, many private firms similarly avoid hiring women who wear headscarves (6 May 2007). Turkey's Erdoğan paves way … This presumption, in and of itself, carries its own misogyny. I mean, I know what it was like to ineptly drape a scarf over my head while going into a mosque in Turkey. The Keffiyeh is commonly used by Muslim men, as for example Yasser Arafat who adopted a black and white fishnet-patterned keffiyeh as a hallmark. image caption The headscarf was banned for years in Turkey Turkish social media users joining the hugely viral #10YearChallenge have sparked … ", Prime Minister Erdoğan campaigned in his victorious 2007 campaign with a promise of lifting the longstanding ban on headscarves in public institutions. And no one seemed to care. Not long ago, women in Turkey fought to be allowed to cover their hair. You don’t attack someone because you believe they don’t have enough rights. We rob Muslim women of agency when we assume that every woman who wears a hijab, niqab, or burqa is doing so because she’s forced to. Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on Pinterest. Avoid wearing camel hump style, or African styles that have high, stiff folds. The Immigration Counsellor at the Embassy of Canada in Ankara stated that "women who wear headscarves have full access to medical care" (27 April 2005), though news reports  and NGO reports to the UN confirm that "women wearing the headscarf have been denied medical care in Turkish hospitals. Because. In 12 April 2005 correspondence sent to the Research Directorate, a professor of political science specializing in women's issues in Turkey at Boğaziçi University in Istanbul indicated that women who wear a headscarf "could possibly be denied employment in private or government sectors." Put the scarf behind your head and at the shoulder. But the hijab, particularly in America, is often singled out and regarded differently by those unfamiliar with it. 2008).  The Parliament voted 403-107 (a majority of 79 per cent) in favour of the first amendment, which was inserted into the constitution stating that everyone has the right to equal treatment from state institutions. Some of these acts are religious. university students, public workers including police and soldier females gained the right to wear headscarf. "With a headscarf life has limitations, you canʹt dance, you canʹt wear trousers, or lipstick." In May 1999, the ban on headscarves in the public sphere hit the headlines when, In March 2009, Kıymet Özgür who wore the çarşaf (, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 23:19. That it could never be a choice. (Which is ridiculous, because do they just expect you to tell them every single time?) Those construction hats with beer cans on either side and a straw that lets you get drunk without all that pesky can lifting. Contacts. She’s from Michigan, but she and her husband have lived in Istanbul for the last few years. As women, we’re required to meet to some sort of weird Goldilocks fashion metric – it’s never one of our own choosing, it has no male equivalent. Oh, and a scarf. Because that sort of thing is insufferable and condescending. Women may wear the headscarf underneath their cap or beret as long as it is the same colour as their uniform and does not cover their faces. The question whether or not female students should be allowed to wear the headscarf on campus divides Turkish society. The most common question I get from women who found out I’ve been to Turkey is this: What did you wear? Some are political. image caption The headscarf was banned for years in Turkey Turkish social media users joining the hugely viral #10YearChallenge have sparked … At the same ferry stop in Besiktas, Asli Kormaz, 30, who has graduated from university, said she supported the headscarf ban. , On February 7, 2008, the Turkish Parliament passed an amendment to the constitution, allowing women to wear the headscarf in Turkish universities, arguing that many women would not seek an education if they could not wear the headscarf. In 1968, a female public university student, Hatice Babacan, refused to remove her headscarf in university buildings. ", "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency", "Turkey: Situation of women who wear headscarves, UNHCR", "THE RISE OF THE ISLAMIST MOVEMENT IN TURKEY", "BBC NEWS - Europe - Turkey eases ban on headscarves", "BBC NEWS - Europe - Turkey divided over headscarf ban", "Veiling and Headscarf-Skepticism in Turkey", "PIECEMEAL FREEDOM: WHY THE HEADSCARF BAN REMAINS IN PLACE IN TURKEY", Strasbourg court's ruling upholds headscarf ban, CHP members’ attack on chador-wearing woman suspicious, Baykal’s unyielding support for chador move greeted warmly, "Turkey's Parliament Eases Ban on Islamic Head Scarves at Universities", Ban on Head Scarves Voted Out in Turkey: Parliament Lifts 80-Year-Old Restriction on University Attire. , In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the number of university students wearing headscarves increased substantially and in 1984, the first widespread application of headscarf ban came into effect at the universities, but throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the ban was not uniformly enforced and many students were able to graduate. Because here’s the thing: it wasn’t a big deal. Add an under scarf or cap you’re your head. First, Turkish universities welcomed the headscarf, due to new instructions by the Higher Education Institution, which in the past issued instructions that banned the practice. And god, I do not want to sound like some self-righteous woman who’s had some sort of deep profound experience because she wore a headscarf twice. 2008), although this could not be corroborated among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate. Hence, mothers of pupils or visitors have no problems at all entering the primary schools, but they would not be able to work as teachers. Conversely, some municipalities with a more traditional constituency might attempt to hire specifically those women who wear a headscarf (Professor 12 April 2005). An immigration counsellor at the Embassy of Canada in Ankara stated on 27 April 2005 correspondence with the Research Directorate that public servants are not permitted to wear a headscarf while on duty, but headscarved women may be employed in the private sector. According to the Sunday Times, headscarves are banned inside Turkish hospitals, and doctors may not don a headscarf on the job (6 May 2007). “We are Muslim. But all of them are decidedly human. Human Rights Watch (HRW) reports that in late 2005, the Administrative Supreme Court ruled that a teacher was not eligible for a promotion in her school because she wore a headscarf outside of work (Jan. 2007). It allowed female students to wear the headscarf in state institutions from 2013 and in high school in 2014. In 2000, Nuray Bezirgan, a Turkish female student, wore a headscarf at her college final exams. Point is, we make thousands of choices like that – some significant, others not – in our lifetimes. However, as the Turkish deputies voted in Parliament, tens of thousands protested outside in favour of the ban. While in Turkey, we met up with a colleague of Rand’s who is Muslim-American. Women in the West attacked for wearing hijab Like, at all. This accessory will never go out of fashion. “Turkey is a democracy, Ataturk made sure religion was out of public life and now the government wants to bring it back.” A small pro-headscarf rally was also held in Ankara. It allowed female students to wear the headscarf in … The headscarf about-turn. “If you a member of an association, you have to obey its rules,” says Havva Can, 16, a student who refuses to stop wearing her headscarf. The country's educational board and numerous universities vowed to defy the new law. Side Pinned Turkish Hijab Style. A Turkish court sentenced her to six months jail for "obstructing the education of others". Putting on a scarf didn’t give me intimate knowledge of what life is like for a Muslim woman anymore than wearing ill-fitting jeans a stained t-shirt will give you an idea of what it’s like to be me. It’s Not Too Late to Stay Home. Female lawyers and journalistswho refused to comply with the ban were expelled from public buildings such as courtrooms … Merry Christmas. No spam. their. Happened. Some are sartorial. “I mean, if you think I’m oppressed, shouldn’t you be kind to me?”. Female lawyers and journalists who refused to comply with the ban were expelled from public buildings such as courtrooms and universities. Was. About all the countless strange and hostile interactions she and her friends had had. I mean, I was terrible at it (I only thought to look up fashion bloggers who wore hijabs after the fact), but ultimately I was just adhering to a dress code. Notice how my hair is showing? In 2005, HRW estimated that these women numbered in … With a constitutional principle of official secularism, the Turkish government has traditionally banned women who wear headscarves from working in the public sector. The conflict between secularism and Islamism in Turkey often has been joined over head scarves. The headscarf debates in Europe and Turkey Gökce Yurdakul / Anna C. Korteweg The controversial headscarf debate has returned to the Turkish and European media due to recent regulations that permit the wearing of headscarves in secondary schools in Turkey. A. Scarf. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk introduced the secularization of the state in the Turkish Constitution of 1924, alongside his reforms. Glasses. Unalʹs lips are painted red, sheʹs wearing a black roll-neck sweater and jeans. And of course, that’s the logical conclusion, but let’s be clear: logic has no role here. Make sure about the face shape, other than the face shape one needs to make sure that they don’t completely hide their forehead. I put on a headscarf in a country that is 90% Muslim so I could enter a few mosques. Turks have argued about the permissibility of veiling since the 1980s. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Think of it as a hairdo with a headscarf. You can wear a maxi dress, an off the shoulders top with jeans, or even a blazer and a more classic outfit. Turkey lifted a ban on the wearing of the Muslim headscarf, known as the hijab, on university campuses in 2010. Many other major religions have similar tenets. Which I sometimes wore on my head.  These were in accordance with the Kemalist ideology, with a strict appliance of laïcité in the constitution. Islam promotes modest dress among women. Forum: Turkey and the headscarf. stories. People who judge or target Muslim women aren’t secret feminists. islamic headscarf ban at universities and state institutions abolished in turkey after long years of disputes. Visiting mosques and places of religious importance in Turkey is the only time that it is necessary to take extra care to cover up. Universities and schools refused to register women students unless they submit ID photographs with bared hair and neck.. Some say the headscarf doesn't fit in France's secular society. The highest court's decision to uphold the headscarf ban cannot be appealed (AP 7 June 2008).. The ban on headscarves in the civil service and educational and political institutions was expanded to cover non-state institutions. It’s terrifying, but perhaps not entirely surprising, given the anti-Muslim rhetoric of our President-Elect. We wear snoods and yarmulkes. Dress too conservatively, and you’re clearly oppressed. The professor of political science at Boğaziçi University in Turkey stated that, in addition to never having come across any cases where women wearing headscarves had been denied access to medical care in private or public medical centres, he felt it would be unlikely that this would occur (12 April 2005). That’s not what you’d want if you were a strict observer of Islam. Basically, the most simple and easy way to wear a headscarf. 16 ways to wear a headscarf this summer--19-27k. That’s very different than wearing one in the United States, where such a gesture can make you a target for hate crimes. The ban on headscarves in the civil service and educational and political institutions was expanded to cover non-state institutions. The ban applies to teachers, lawyers, parliamentarians, and others working on state premises. In addition, the main pro-secular, opposition party of the Republican People's Party asked the constitutional court to block the new law passed, and viewed it is a move towards an Islamic state. She went on to tell me how a friend of hers had nearly been run off the road while driving in Texas, and the other driver had screamed at her to “go back to her own country” (a comment that is, in any circumstance, a completely shitty and bigoted thing to say, but made slightly more absurd by the fact that “her own country” IS AMERICA).  Thousands of demonstrators supporting the ban also gathered near the Parliament against the move by the government. “They used to withhold their names when they talked about it but today they post their pictures on … jeans (ones that manage to be too big everywhere except for the thighs, which are too tight), t-shirts (note: most of these should fit me terribly, except for one, which fits me great, and which I will promptly get hummus on), sneakers, which I inexplicably call tennis shoes. Dress too provocatively, and you unleash an entirely new branch of misogyny. That’s very different than wearing one in the United States, where such a gesture can make you a target for hate crimes. The ban applies to teachers, lawyers, parliamentarians, and others working on state premises. The headscarf has been a sore, highly politicized subject in Turkish politics for the last two decades. A regulation in, 16 July 1982 specified that: the clothing and appearances of personnel working at public institutions; the rule that female civil servants' head must be uncovered. Turkish president approves amendment lifting headscarf ban, "BBC NEWS - Europe - Court annuls Turkish scarf reform", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Headscarf_rights_in_Turkey&oldid=995421290, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from April 2014, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles with failed verification from November 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Yarmulkes. She told me about people’s reactions when they met her in person (as opposed to only knowing her online) and saw that she wore a hijab. Wearing. Promise. I Do Not Have The Emotional Bandwidth For A Coup Right Now. But wearing a hijab, even for a few hours, was revelatory in one profound way: it was entirely familiar. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "Türkiye'de başörtüsü yasağı: Nasıl başladı, nasıl çözüldü? However, the move resulted in opposition throughout Turkey. Pair this look with some bold earrings, like golden hoops and a pair of sunglasses. Mormon dress codes (particularly for missionaries) emphasize modesty as well. Turkey's highest court today overturned a politically controversial law allowing women students to wear the Muslim headscarf at university, dealing a … It is, simply, a way for Muslim women to express their faith and fulfill the commandment for modesty in clothing. In Turkey, I saw women with their hair or faces covered, and women dressed as I was (though with decidedly fewer stains on their sweaters).  The debate over headscarves in universities has been the most contentious of all and has been an important element in the politics of Turkey since 2000.. According to Country Reports 2007, women who wore headscarves and their supporters "were disciplined or lost their jobs in the public sector" (US 11 March 2008, Sec. 2008). Next door in Turkey, they are demanding they be allowed cover it. THE LOW PONYTAIL: tie a scarf around your low loose ponytail, and leave the ends out. Over. We believe in Islam, so we have to obey.” Some women find the headscarf to … "Turkey is a secular republic." While no civil servant or high school student has ever been allowed to wear a headscarf… According to Middle East Report Online (MERO), there are no reliable statistics on the number of women who do not attend institutions of higher learning in Turkey because they wear a headscarf (Apr. If you want to know what it was like for me – recovering-Catholic and human disaster – to wear a headscarf, read on. We wear wedding veils. , After the failed attempt at lifting the ban against headscarves in public institutions in 2008, the Justice and Development Party arranged constitutional amendments in 2010 that would lead to lifting the ban against wearing headscarves in Turkish educational institutions. 2.c). What has changed is that women taking off the headscarf in Turkey today no longer feel alone. If you want to know the thoughts of Muslim women, then read. My clothing has, over the scope of my life, prompted comments that I was a slut, a prude, too matronly, and “going to get raped in that.” We’re damned, either way. Hair. The issue of the headscarf debate has been very intense and controversial since its ban, along with other prominent religious symbols, in public buildings such as government institutions and public schools, similar to policies in France and Mexico. That mentality suggests that there is only one way for a woman to be liberated: by expressing herself according to a very specific set of western cultural norms. … It’s almost like women aren’t the problem. You will look… Right, a photograph of a Christian woman taken in Turkey in 1886. More recent or corroborating information on the headscarf ban in the public service could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate.  Two years later, the lift on the ban extended to judiciary roles in 2015 and the year following, 2016, to the Turkish police force. We wear hijabs. Because covering your hair isn’t simply an aspect of Muslim culture but an aspect of human culture. This. Look at me, strutting my stuff in a loaner skirt they give you at the ticket counter. target Muslim women aren’t secret feminists, he’s done a bang-up job of vilifying and dehumanizing Muslims. Since his campaign began, he’s done a bang-up job of vilifying and dehumanizing Muslims – saying that people in the community are harboring terrorists and even calling for a database to keep tabs on everyone. Her.  Turkey is a secular country and over 95% of its people are Muslims. It’s very different from wearing a scarf because it is a part of your religious and cultural identity. Advocating for the ban of hijabs or similar articles of clothing is just as oppressive as the ideas those bans are trying to fight against. Buy my book and I promise I'll never ask you for anything again. A beautiful headscarf in your hair looks extremely nice and creates a summertime mood. We wear baseball caps that read “MAKE AMERICA GAY AGAIN.”. And my mother has many memories from her childhood in Italy of nuns with shaved heads and women who would cover their hair with shawls before entering church. Turkey's Constitutional Changes: Much Ado About Nothing?  The ban on the headscarf for public personnel was lifted by the democratization package on 1 October 2013 and with the amendment made in article 5 of the dress code regulation, restrictive provisions were lifted.  With the support of the Council of Higher Education, the Justice and Development Party was able to persuade women who wore headscarves to return to school. Get new blog posts delivered straight to your inbox. If you enter the Vatican, you can’t do so with bare shoulders or in shorts. Crucifixes.  The headscarf was banned in public institutions because of the 'public clothing regulation' issued after the 1980 coup and began to be implemented in a radical way after the 1997 military memorandum. (I have never tennised in my life.). In 1998, a Turkish student was banned for wearing a headscarf at. That enrages me, it makes me want to scream, and it makes me fearful for people in my life. Who doesn't like scarves? In the end, the only thing strange about wearing a headscarf was that it wasn’t strange at all. She. The headscarf ban in public spaces, including schools and universities (public and private), courts of law, government offices and other official institutions, is only for students, workers and public servants. If you need to flaunt your beautiful printed headscarf, at that point, …  On October 8, 2013, the ban was lifted specifically at universities and government positions unless uniform was required such as the military, police, and judiciary. This answer on Quora puts it rather brilliantly: Religious expression is not a cry for help. The Republic of Turkey has been a secular state since the constitutional amendment of 1937. It can get equated with oppression – as though the only way a woman would ever wear one is because she has to. I put on a headscarf in a country that is 90% Muslim so I could enter a few mosques. In Islam, as with so many other religions, these tenets are not observed by everyone. Many Muslim women wear a headscarf, often known as a hijab and in Quranic Arabic as the khimar.Many of these garments cover the hair, ears and throat, but do not cover the face. Similarly, at the courts of law, the ban only involves judges, attorneys, lawyers and other workers. But it doesn’t make me fearful for my life, and therein lies my privilege. She noted that it never made any sense to her.  It has resulted in a clash between those favouring the secular principles of the state, such as the Turkish Armed Forces, and religious conservatives, including some Islamists. Campus divides Turkish society religious and cultural identity … the headscarf on campus divides society... Fulfill the commandment for modesty in clothing on state premises ( Apr she ’ the. In favour of the state in the public sector way: it was entirely familiar mosque in Turkey,! 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State in the civil service and educational and political institutions was expanded to cover their in! Their faith and fulfill the commandment for modesty in clothing me – recovering-Catholic and human disaster – to a! Actively discouraged its use in public venues I ’ ve been to Turkey is a part of religious... Enter mosques and other workers and easy way to wear a headscarf this summer 19-27k. Is 90 % Muslim so I could enter a few mosques lipstick. never! Jeans, or lipstick. m oppressed, shouldn ’ t secret feminists, he s! Student, Hatice Babacan, refused to remove her headscarf in your hair isn ’ t attack because. Ridiculous, because do they just expect you to tell them every single time? want. An off the headscarf does n't fit in France 's secular society makes me fearful for my life ). Parliament against the move resulted in opposition throughout Turkey my headscarf since I was 14, is often out.